Assessment of Permissible Limits for Heavy Metals in Various Inspired and Authentic Lipsticks

  • Nurasmat Mohd Shukri Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Nur Afiqah Abdul Bashir Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Norshahidatul Akmar Mohd Shohaimi Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Wan Nazwanie Wan Abdullah Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Nor Hakimin Abdullah Universiti Malaysia Kelantan
  • Ahmad Zamani Ab Halim Universiti Malaysia Pahang
  • Nur Fatien Muhamad Salleh Universiti Sains Malaysia


Heavy metals in lipsticks is a safety threat to the health of consumers. The analytical information on heavy metals in lipsticks is crucial to increase the awareness of users. This study measured and compared the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) in authentic and inspired lipsticks. A total of 24 lipsticks (12 authentic and 12 inspired) were digested using wet acid digestion method and the elements were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Based on the permissible levels in lipstick set by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA), all the heavy metals analyzed were detected in three brands of inspired lipsticks. These results revealed that the inspired lipsticks may not be safe to be used by the public.