Biochemical and In-vivo Antioxidant Activities of Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Boswellia Papyrifera (Del.) Stem Bark on CCl4-Induced Liver Damage in Wister Rats
The efficacy of any hepatocurative drug is dependent on its ability to reduce the harmful effects or in maintaining the normal hepatic physiological mechanism which has been imbalanced by a hepatotoxin compound. This study was aimed at evaluating the liver biochemical parameters and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate fractions on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. The ethyl acetate fractions of Boswellia papyrifera (E2) stem bark extract were obtained after column chromatography and TLC of ethyl acetate of the stem bark extract. Four (4) major subfractions (E2A, E2B, E2C, and E2D) were obtained. These subfractions were administered to CCl4-induced liver-damaged rats for four weeks prior to liver function indices and antioxidant analysis. A total of 25 white male albino (Wister) rats were used for each fraction in the study, wherein the rats were divided into five groups of 5 rats each. The rats in Group I were not induced with lipid peroxidation and liver damage but served as the normal control. Groups II to V were injected with a single dose of 120 mg/kg of CCl4 prior to oral administration of ethyl acetate fractions of Boswellia papyrifera to Groups III to V with 20, 30, and 50 mg/kg of the fractions, respectively. The effect of the E2B fraction on the activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum concentration of albumin, total and direct bilirubin and total protein were significantly (p<0.05) found to be no different from that of the normal control group. However, a significant (p<0.05) increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) activities were recorded in all experimentally treated animals compared to the test and normal controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05) in all experimental groups as compared to the test control. Histopathology showed that liver integrity was consistent with that of biochemical findings. However, no significant effect was observed from the E2A, E2C, and E2D fractions. It can be concluded that E2B ethyl acetate fraction of Boswellia papyrifera stem bark possesses potent curative activity against CCl4-induced liver damage, which may be due to its antioxidant activity.