Malaysian Journal of Chemistry, 2017, Vol. 19(2), 111 – 117

Phytochemical Analysis and Hypoglycemic Activity from Ethanolic
Extract of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Leaves

Nguyen Ngoc Hong, Bui Van Chung and Hoang Khai Le*
HCMC University of Technology (HUTECH) – 475A Dien Bien Phu Street,
Binh Thanh District, HCMC

 *Corresponding author: (e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.) 

Received: December 2016; Accepted: May 2017


Oroxylum indicum (L.) is an important medicinal plant used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study is to evaluate the phytochemical compounds and the anti-hyperglycemic potential of ethanolic extract of O. indicum leaves in oral glucose tolerance tests carried out with glucose-loaded mice. Preliminary findings revealed that O. indicum showed the presence of carotenoid, essential oil, triterpenoids in free and glycosid forms, tannins, flavonoids and anthraquinones. The composition of ethanolic extract of O. indicum leaves was investigated by using an HPLC/ MS fingerprinting technique coupled with chemometric analysis. According to the exact mass measurements and MS/MS data, the results showed the identification of four flavonoids such as 5, 7 dihydro - 3 methoxyflavone (1); pinobanksin (2); baicalein (3); and chrysin (4). The triterpenoid betulinic acid (5) was identified as constituents of O. indicum for the first time.

The effects of three different doses (50 mg/kg, 70 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg body weight) of ethanolic extract were orally tolerated to body mice before the oral glucose tolerance. The result indicated that percentage of inhibition of ethanolic extract of O. indicum leaves at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in glucose-induced hyperglycemic mice was effectively similar to standard drug glibenclamide.

Key words: HPLC/MS; hypoglycemic; phytochemical analysis; phenolic compounds; Oroxylum indicum (L.)


1.  Uddin K., Sayeed A., Islam A., Rahman A., Ali A., Khan M. and Sadik M. G. (2003) Purification, characterization and cytotoxic activity of two flavonoids from Oroxylum indicum Vent. (Bignoniaceae), Asian Journal Plant Science, 50, 515–518.

2.  Hong, N.N., Nhat, M.N. and Phuong N.D. (2013) Antioxidant power and hepatoprotection of Psidium guajava and Oroxylum indicum leaves, Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology, 51, 121–135.

3.  Ciulei I. (1981) Methodology for analysis of vegetable drugs, United Nations Industrial Development Organisation, Romania.

4.  Tran Hung, (2006) Medicinal laboratory, Hochiminh city University of Pharmacy and Medicine.

5.  Singleton, V.L. and Rossi, J.A. (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdice phosphotungstic acid reagents, Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 16, 144–158.

6.  Park Y.-S., Jung S-T., Kang S.G., Heo B. G., Arancibia-Avila P., Toledo F., Drzewiecki J., Namiesnik J. and Gorinstein S. (2008) Antioxidants and proteins in ethylene treated kiwifruits, Food Chemistry, 107, 2, 640–648.

7.  Sun, B., Ricardo-da-Silva, J. M. and Spranger, I. (1998) Critical factors of vanillin assay for catechins and proanthocyanidins, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46 (10), 4267–4274.

8.  Venkatesh, S., Reddy, G.D. Reddy, Y.S.R., Sathyavathy, D. and Reddy, B.M. (2004) Effect of Helicteres isora root extracts on glucose tolerance in glucose-induced hyperglycemic rats, Fitoterapia, 75, 364–367.

9. Kalff, J. and Robinson, R. (1925). XXVIII. A synthesis of myricetin and of a galangin monomethyl ether occurring in galanga root, Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions, 127, 181–184.

10. Kuroyanagi M., Yamamoto Y., Fukushima S., Ueno A., Noro T. and Miyase T. (1982) Chemical studies on the constituents of Polygonum nodosum, Chem. Pharm. Bull., 30, 1602, 8.

11. Yan, R. Y., Cao, Y. Y., Chen, C. Y., Dai, H. Q., Yu, S. X., Wei, J. L. and Yang, B. (2011) Antioxidant flavonoids from the seed of Oroxylum indicum, Fitoterapia, 82 (6), 841–848. 

12. Chen L. J., Games, D. E. and Jones J. (2003) Isolation and identification four flavonoid constituents from the seeds of Oroxylum indicum by high-speed counter-current chromatography, J. Chromatogr. A, 988, 95–105.

13. Medana, C., Carbone, F., Aigotti, R., Appendino, G. and Baiocchi, C. (2008) Selective analysis of phenolic compounds in propolis by HPLC‐MS/MS, Phytochemical Analysis, 19 (1), 32–39.

14. Zaghloul, A.M., Gohar, A.A., Ahmad, M.M., Baraka, H.N. and El-Bassuony, A.A. (2011) Phenylpropanoids from the stem bark of Jacaranda mimosaefolia, Natural Product Research, 25 (1), 68–76.

15. Mukherjee, P.K. and Wahile, A. (2006) Integrated approaches towards drug development from Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicines, J. Ethnopharmacol., 103, 25–35.

16. Farjou, I.B., Al-Ani, M., and Guirgea, S.Y.  (1987) Lowering of blood glucose of diabetic rats by Artemisia extract, Journal of the Faculty of Medicine, 92, 137–147.

17. Nyunai, N., Njikam, N., Addennebi, E.H., Mbaford, J.T. and Lamnaouer, D. (2004) Hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic activity of Ageratum conyzoides L. in rats, African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 6, 123–130.

18. Bhowmik, A., Khan, L.A., Akhter, M. and Rokeya, B. (2009) Studies on the antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica stem-barks and leaves on nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats, Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, 4, 110–114.

back to top