Malaysian Journal of Chemistry, 2017, Vol. 19(2), 75 – 81
Influence of Ph Value and Temperature on the Formation of Iron Maltodextrin Complex
Nguyen D. Vinh1*, Thao T. Dao1, Huong Q. Dao2, N. T. Phan Bich2,
Duc A. Ngo2 and Hien D. Vu2
1Faculty of Chemistry, Thai Nguyen University of Sciences
2Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
Received: January 2017; Accepted: June 2017
This article deals with the influence of the pH value and temperature on the synthesis of iron maltodextrin complex from aqueous solutions of iron (III) chloride and maltodextrin. Products were characterized by X-ray diffractio, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and conductivity meter. The complex obtained at pH value from 3.0 to 11.0 contained iron in the form of akaganeite and had highest iron content and the yield at pH of 9.0. Temperature affected the formation of iron phase in the complex and the optimum value for the synthesis was 80oC. The complex obtained at optimum condition has iron content of 28.75 % and the yield of 78.96 %. Complex particles had a spherical shape with the diameter from 20 to 30 nm and consisted of akaganeite cores with a diameter of nearly 5 nm. The electric conductivity of the saturated complex solution was 30 µS/cm.
Key words: Iron; maltodextrin; complex; akaganeite; crystallinity; core
1. Payne, S. and Finkelstein, R. (1978) The critical role of iron in host-bacterial interactions. J. Clin. Invest., 61(6), 1428–1440.
2. Borriello, A., Caldarelli, I., Speranza, M. C., Scianguetta, S., Tramontano, A., Bencivenga, D., Stampone, E., Negri, A., Nobili, B., Locatelli, F., Perrotta, S., Oliva, A. and Della Ragione, F. (2016) Iron overload enhances human mesenchymal stromal cell growth and hampers matrix calcification, Biochim. Biophys. Acta - Gen. Subj., 1860, 1211–1223.
3. Chung, H., Wu, D., Smith, D., Meydani, S. N. and Han, S. N. (2016) Lower hepatic iron storage associated with obesity in mice can be restored by decreasing body fat mass through feeding a low-fat diet. Nutr. Res., 36, 955–963.
4. Salonen, J., Nyyssönen, K., Korpela, H. and Tuomilehto, J. (1992) High stored iron levels are associated with excess risk of myocardial infarction in eastern Finnish men, Circulation, 86(3), 803–811.
5. Falkingham, M., Abdelhamid, A. and Curtis, P. (2010) The effects of oral iron supplementation on cognition in older children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition, 126, e140–e149.
6. Sox, H., Berwick, D., Berg, A. and Frame, P. (1993) Routine iron supplementation during pregnancy: review article, Jama.
7. Gera, T. and Sachdev, H. (2002) Effect of iron supplementation on incidence of infectious illness in children: systematic review, BMJ, 325(7373), 1142 pmid.
8. Pena-Rosas, J. and Viteri, F. (2007) Effects of routine oral iron supplementation with or without folic acid for women during pregnancy (Review), Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 4:CD004736, 85(1),131–136.
9. Sachdev, H., Gera, T. and Nestel, P. (2005) Effect of iron supplementation on mental and motor development in children: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Public Health Nutr., 8, 117–132.
10. Rozen-Zvi, B., Gafter-Gvili, A., Paul, M. and Leibovici, L. (2008) Intravenous versus oral iron supplementation for the treatment of anemia in CKD: systematic review and meta-analysis, Am. J. Kidney Dis., 52(5), 897–906.
11. Mophan, N., Vinitnantharat, S. and Somsook, E. (2010) Enhancing iron (III) solubility using cassava and arrowroot starch, ScienceAsia, 36(2), 172–173.
12. Knight, B., Bowen, L., Bereman, R. and Huang, S. (1999) Comparison of the core size distribution in iron dextran complexes using Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 73(4), 227–233.
13. Cakic, M., Nikolic, G. and Ilic, L. (2002) FTIR spectra of iron (III) complexes with dextran, pullulan and inulin oligomers, Bull. Chem. Technol., 2,135–146.
14. Geisser, P. and Burckhardt, S. (2011) The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of iron preparations, Pharmaceutics, 3(1), 12–33.
15. Funk, F., Ryle, P., Canclini, C. and Neiser, S. (2010) The new generation of intravenous iron: chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of ferric carboxymaltos, Arzneimittelforschung, 60(6a), 345–53.
16. Zhang, Y. and Liu, J. (2011) Optimization of process conditions for preparing an iron-polysaccharide complex by response surface methodology, Chem. Biochem. Eng. Q., 25 (1), 75–81.
17. Cox, J., Kennedy, G. and King, J. (1972) Structure of an iron‐dextran complex., J. Pharm., 24, 513–517.
18. Humphrey, D. (1964) IRON-DEXTRAN COMPLEX, Lancet, 23, 354–358.
19. Kudasheva, D., Lai, J., Ulman, A. and Cowman, M. (2004) Structure of carbohydrate-bound polynuclear iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in parenteral formulations, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 98, 1757–17.
20. Macdougall, I., Dahl, N. and Bernard, K. (2017) The Ferumoxytol for Anemia of CKD Trial (FACT)—a randomized controlled trial of repeated doses of ferumoxytol or iron sucrose in patients on hemodialysis, BMC Nephrol., 18, 117.
21. Galan, L. (1985) De Organic analysis using atomic absorption spectrometry, Trends Anal. Chem., 57 (12), 2229–2235.
22. Cornell, R. and Schwertmann, U. (2003) The iron oxides: structure, properties, reactions, occurrences and uses, 2nd edn., Amazon.com.
23. West, A. (2007) Solid state chemistry and its applications, 2nd edn., Amazon.com.
24. Vinh, N., Huong, D. and Bich, P. (2012) The influence of pH values on the formation and the solubility of iron- starch complex (ISC). Vietnam J. Chem.
25. Wallerstein, R. (1968) Intravenous iron-dextran complex. Blood, 32, 690–695.