Physicochemical Characteristics of Malaysian Crude Palm Kernel Oil
This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of Malaysian crude palm kernel oil (CPKO). The physicochemical properties showed that the free fatty acid (FFA%) of 3.7±0.1%, acid value of 10.4±0.1 mg/g, iodine value of 20.8±0.6 mg/g, hydroxyl value of 45.06±0.3 mg/g, refractive index at 28°C of g/ml, 1.455, moisture content of 0.5±0.1%, viscosity at 28°C of 40 cP, Lovibond colour (R/Y) at 28°C of 0.5R–20Y. The gas chromatography-ﬂame ionisation detector was used to determine the fatty acid composition in CPKO. The results showed that the dominant fatty acids are lauric acid (44.5±0.7%), oleic acid (18.0±0.5%), myristic acid (16.9±0.1%) and palmitic acid (9.4±0.2%). The major triacylglycerols (TAGs) of CPKO estimated using high-performance liquid chromatography were LaLaLa (32.91%), LaLaM (23.59), LaOLa (9.93%) and CLaLa (9.10%). The differential scanning calorimetry showed that the crystallisation of CPKO displayed two major exothermic regions of CPKO with the saturated TAG at 6.11°C and the unsaturated TAG at -2.10°C. The melting curve of CPKO displayed two endothermic peak regions at 9.13°C and 24.08°C.