Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis Induced by the Standardised Ethanolic Extracts of Mucuna bracteata
Mucuna bracteata is a wild leguminous cover crop in oil palm and rubber plantations around Malaysia. It is also popular in Ayurveda medicine. There are scientific reports on the antiproliferative activities of plant species belong to Mucuna genus. However, there is no scientific report on M. bracteata. Hence, we investigated the antiproliferative activities of the ethanol extracts from young and matured leaves, young and matured stems, seeds and roots on nasopharyngeal cancer cells (TWO1) and non-cancerous cells (3T3) through MTT assay. The extracts were standardised through determination of its total phenolic content and total flavonoid content. The young leaves extract exhibited IC50 of 148μg/mL and 91μg/mL on TWO1 and 3T3 cells respectively. While, the matured leaves extract found to have IC50 at 165μg/mL and 225μg/mL on TWO1 and 3T3 cells respectively. The IC50 values for other plant parts were more than 250μg/mL on TWO1 and 3T3 cells. Both young leaves and matured leaves extracts induced slightly higher degree of apoptosis than necrosis on TWO1 cells. Being a potent extract which was also selective towards TWO1 cells, the matured leaves extract was further found to induce apoptosis through the phosphatidylserine translocation and caspase-3 activation.